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particle nature of electromagnetic radiation is explained by

One way in which light interacts with matter is via the photoelectric effect, which will be studied in detail in . The phenomenon is studied in condensed matter physics, and solid state and quantum chemistry to draw inferences about the properties of atoms, molecules and solids. Critical Concept 3-1 (b) De-broglie wavelength is given by: λ = h p. λ = h … Radiowaves are used in conjunction with a magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of the body. In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. The energy of electromagnetic radiation can be calculated by the following formula: In this formula, E is energy, h is Planck’s constant (equal to 4.15 × 10-15 eV-sec), and f is the frequency of the photon. This chapter introduces the nature of electromagnetic and particulate radiation. This question about the nature of electromagnetic radiation was debated by scientists for more than two centuries, starting in the 1600s. gamma rays With electromagnetic radiation, it is the energy itself that is vibrating as a combination of electric and magnetic fields; it is pure energy. The sound from a speaker vibrates molecules of air adjacent to the speaker, which then pass the vibration to other nearby molecules until they reach the listener’s ear. The wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum range from 106 to10-16 meters (m) and the frequencies range from 102 to 1024 hertz (Hz). particle nature of electromagnetic radiation and planck's quantum theory The electromagnetic wave theory of radiation believed in the continuous generation of energy. I would like to throw some light to the history and developements of what led to the failure of the wave nature of light. This property is explained in this chapter. The Particle Nature of Light 1. electromagnetic radiation • Differentiate between electromagnetic and particulate radiation. X-rays and gamma rays are used for imaging in radiology and nuclear medicine, respectively. It states that all the particles and quantum entities have not only a wave behaviour but also a particle … Describe the nature of the electromagnetic spectrum. The American physicist Arthur Holly Compton explained (1922; published 1923) the wavelength increase by considering X-rays as composed of discrete pulses, or quanta, of electromagnetic energy. • Discuss the energy, wavelength, and frequency of each member of the electromagnetic spectrum and how these characteristics affect its behavior in interacting with matter. 06.11 Hess’s Law and Enthalpies for Different Types of Reactions. All electromagnetic radiations have the same nature in that they are electric and magnetic disturbances traveling through space. The amplitude refers to the maximum height of a wave. His work is considered by many to be one of the greatest advances of physics. They all have the same velocity—the speed of light—and vary only in their energy, wavelength, and frequency. In fact, energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation are related mathematically. Wavelength • Differentiate between x-rays and gamma rays and the rest of the electromagnetic spectrum. The amplitude refers to the maximum height of a wave. As previously stated, the velocity for all electromagnetic radiation is the same: 3 × 108 m/s. The magnetic and the electric fields come at 90° to each other and the combined waves move perpendicular to both electric and magnetic oscillating fields occurring the disturbance. Very soon, it was experimentally confirmed by Davisson and Germer that the electron shows the diffraction pattern and therefore has the wave associated with it. • Explain the relationship between energy and frequency of electromagnetic radiation. unit of frequency ( ν) is hertz (Hz, s −1 ). The energy is measured in electron volts (eV). Electromagnetic radiations are characterized by the properties − frequency ( v) and wave length (λ). Difference between Electromagnetic and Mechanical Energy Wavelength and frequency are discussed shortly. In this theory he explained that all electromagnetic radiation is very similar in that it has no mass, carries energy in waves as electric and magnetic disturbances in space, and travels at the speed of light (Figure 3-1). Conceptually we can talk about electromagnetic radiation based on its wave characteristics of velocity, amplitude, wavelength, and frequency. inverse square law Einstein proposed that electromagnetic radiation has a wave-particle nature, that the energy of a quantum, or photon, depends on the frequency of the radiation, and that the energy of the photon is given by the formula Ephoton=hv. His work is considered by many to be one of the greatest advances of physics. The photon is now regarded as a particle in fields related to the interaction of material with light that is absorbed and emitted; and regarded as a wave in regions relating to light propagation. Electromagnetic Radiation is basically light, which is present in a rainbow or a double rainbow. In general, it is the radiographer’s role to be familiar with the different types of radiation to which patients may be exposed and to be able to answer questions and educate patients. FIGURE 3-2 Electromagnetic Spectrum.The electromagnetic spectrum energy, frequency, and wavelength ranges are continuous, with energies from 10−12 to 1010 eV. Sub Atomic Particles; 2.1.1. The energy of electromagnetic radiation can be calculated by the following formula: Planck theorized that electromagnetic radiation can only exist as “packets” of energy, later called photons. The wave-particle duality of photons and electromagnetic radiation is enshrined in an equation first proposed by the German physicist Max Planck (1858 to 1947). The wave theory of light was challenged when scientists discovered the photoelectric effect. Introduction EM radiation has a wavelength. particulate radiation Planck theorized that electromagnetic radiation can only exist as “packets” of energy, later called photons. • Calculate the wavelength or frequency of electromagnetic radiation. The radiographer should consider him or herself as a resource for the public and should be able to dispel any myths or misconceptions about medical imaging in general. Compton effect Convincing evidence of the particle nature of electromagnetic radiation was found in 1922 by the American physicist Arthur Holly Compton. The phenomena such as interference, diffraction, and polarization can only be explained when light is treated as a wave whereas the phenomena such as the photoelectric effect, line spectra, and the production and scattering of x rays demonstrate the particle nature of light. The S.I. 2.0.Introduction; 2.1. The constant, h, which is named for Planck, is a mathematical value used to calculate photon energies based on frequency. Video explain methods & techniques to solve numericals on particle nature of electromagnetic radiations helpful for CBSE 11 Chemistry Ch.2 structure of atom In the absence of the intervening air molecules, no sound would reach the ear. Related The ranges of energy, frequency, and wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum are continuous—that is, one constituent blends into the next (Figure 3-2). Because the speed of EM waves predicted by the wave equation coincided with the measured speed of light, Maxwell concluded that light itself is an EM wave. As a result, the particle nature of light comes into play when it interacts with metals and irradiates free electrons. Dismiss, 01.05 Properties of Matter and their Measurement, 1.05 Properties of Matter and their Measurement, 01.06 The International System of Units (SI Units), 01.08 Uncertainty in Measurement: Scientific Notation, 1.08 Uncertainty in Measurement: Scientific Notation, 01.09 Arithmetic Operations using Scientific Notation, 1.09 Arithmetic Operations Using Scientific Notation, 01.12 Arithmetic Operations of Significant Figures, 1.12 Arithmetic Operations of Significant Figures, 01.17 Atomic Mass and Average Atomic Mass, 02.22 Dual Behaviour of Electromagnetic Radiation, 2.22 Dual Behaviour of Electromagnetic Radiation, 02.23 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: Numericals, 2.23 Particle Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation - Numericals, 02.24 Evidence for the quantized Electronic Energy Levels: Atomic Spectra, 2.24 Evidence for the Quantized Electronic Energy Levels - Atomic Spectra, 02.28 Importance of Bohr’s Theory of Hydrogen Atom, 2.28 Importance of Bohr’s Theory of Hydrogen Atom, 02.29 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen – I, 2.29 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen - I, 02.30 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen – II, 2.30 Bohr’s Theory and Line Spectrum of Hydrogen - II, 02.33 Dual Behaviour of Matter: Numericals, 2.33 Dual Behaviour of Matter - Numerical, 02.35 Significance of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 2.35 Significance of Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle, 02.36 Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle: Numericals, 2.36 Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle - Numerical, 02.38 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom: Introduction, 2.38 Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom - Introduction, 02.39 Hydrogen Atom and the Schrödinger Equation, 2.39 Hydrogen Atom and the Schrödinger Equation, 02.40 Important Features of Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, 2.40 Important Features of Quantum Mechanical Model of Atom, 03 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties, 03.01 Why do we need to classify elements, 03.02 Genesis of Periodic classification – I, 3.02 Genesis of Periodic Classification - I, 03.03 Genesis of Periodic classification – II, 3.03 Genesis of Periodic Classification - II, 03.04 Modern Periodic Law and Present Form of Periodic Table, 3.04 Modern Periodic Law and Present Form of Periodic Table, 03.05 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100, 3.05 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100, 03.06 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table – I, 3.06 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table - I, 03.07 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table – II, 3.07 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table - II, 03.08 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-block – I, 3.08 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - s-block - I, 03.09 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: p-blocks – II, 3.09 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - p-blocks - II, 03.10 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: Exceptions in periodic table – III, 3.10 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - Exceptions in Periodic Table - III, 03.11 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: d-block – IV, 3.11 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - d-block - IV, 03.12 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: f-block – V, 3.12 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements - f-block - V, 03.18 Factors affecting Ionization Enthalpy, 3.18 Factors Affecting Ionization Enthalpy, 03.20 Trends in Ionization Enthalpy – II, 04 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure, 04.01 Kossel-Lewis approach to Chemical Bonding, 4.01 Kössel-Lewis Approach to Chemical Bonding, 04.03 The Lewis Structures and Formal Charge, 4.03 The Lewis Structures and Formal Charge, 04.06 Bond Length, Bond Angle and Bond Order, 4.06 Bond Length, Bond Angle and Bond Order, 04.10 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, 4.10 The Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, 04.12 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds, 4.12 Types of Overlapping and Nature of Covalent Bonds, 04.17 Formation of Molecular Orbitals (LCAO Method), 4.17 Formation of Molecular Orbitals (LCAO Method), 04.18 Types of Molecular Orbitals and Energy Level Diagram, 4.18 Types of Molecular Orbitals and Energy Level Diagram, 04.19 Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behavior, 4.19 Electronic Configuration and Molecular Behaviour, Chapter 4 Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure - Test, 05.02 Dipole-Dipole Forces And Hydrogen Bond, 5.02 Dipole-Dipole Forces and Hydrogen Bond, 05.03 Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces and Repulsive Intermolecular Forces, 5.03 Dipole-Induced Dipole Forces and Repulsive Intermolecular Forces, 05.04 Thermal Interaction and Intermolecular Forces, 5.04 Thermal Interaction and Intermolecular Forces, 05.08 The Gas Laws : Gay Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law, 5.08 The Gas Laws - Gay Lussac’s Law and Avogadro’s Law, 05.10 Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressure – I, 05.12 Deviation of Real Gases from Ideal Gas Behaviour, 5.12 Deviation of Real Gases from Ideal Gas Behaviour, 05.13 Pressure -Volume Correction and Compressibility Factor, 5.13 Pressure - Volume Correction and Compressibility Factor, 06.02 Internal Energy as a State Function – I, 6.02 Internal Energy as a State Function - I, 06.03 Internal Energy as a State Function – II, 6.03 Internal Energy as a State Function - II, 06.06 Extensive and Intensive properties, Heat Capacity and their Relations, 6.06 Extensive and Intensive Properties, Heat Capacity and their Relations, 06.07 Measurement of ΔU and ΔH : Calorimetry, 6.07 Measurement of ΔU and ΔH - Calorimetry, 06.08 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – I, 6.08 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction - I, 06.09 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – II, 6.09 Enthalpy Change, ΔrH of Reaction - II, 06.10 Enthalpy change, ΔrH of Reaction – III, 6.10 Enthalpy Change, ΔrH of Reaction - III. Electromagnetic radiation exhibits properties of a wave or a particle depending on its energy and in some cases its environment. 3.6 The Dual Nature of Electromagnetic Energy Learning Objectives Explain how the double slit experiment demonstrates wave-particle duality at the quantum scale. One difference between the “ends” of the spectrum is that only high-energy radiation (x-rays and gamma rays) has the ability to ionize matter. Electromagnetic energy differs from mechanical energy in that it does not require a medium in which to travel. In the latter half of the 19th century, the physicist James Maxwell developed his electromagnetic theory, significantly advancing the world of physics. radioactivity Wave Nature of Electromagnetic Radiation: James Maxwell (1870) was the first to give a comprehensive explanation about the interaction between the charged bodies and the behavior of electrical and magnetic fields on the macroscopic level. With this rationale in mind, the electromagnetic spectrum is discussed first, followed by a discussion of particulate radiation. More specifically, the radiographer should be able to explain to a patient the nature of ionizing radiation as well as any risks and benefits, and should be an advocate for the patient in such discussions with other professionals. Electromagnetic energy differs from mechanical energy in that it does not require a medium in which to travel. Key Features of the Photoelectric Effect For example, sound is a form of mechanical energy. With this rationale in mind, the electromagnetic spectrum is discussed first, followed by a discussion of particulate radiation. Introduction microwaves Discovery of Electron; 2.1.2. Blackbody Radiation. Maxwell's equations were confirmed by Heinrich Hertz through experiments with radio waves. So does electromagnetic radiation consist of waves or particles? Radiowaves are used in conjunction with a magnetic field in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to create images of the body. Tags: Essentials of Radiographic Physics and Imaging Log In or Register to continue These fields are transmitted in the forms of waves called electromagnetic waves or electromagnetic radiation. Key Ideas and Terms Notes Define frequency. The energy is measured in electron volts (eV). Thus, De-Broglie equation equals the wavelength of em radiation of which the photon is a quantum of energy and momentum. There are only two ways to transfer energy from one place to another place. • Describe the nature of the electromagnetic spectrum. E=hf Electrons emitted in this manner are called photoelectrons. One difference between the “ends” of the spectrum is that only high-energy radiation (x-rays and gamma rays) has the ability to ionize matter. For a photon: P = h v c. Therefore, h p = c v = λ. unit of wavelength is metre (m). The physicist Max Planck first described the direct proportionality between energy and frequency; that is, as the frequency increases, so does the energy. Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Google+ (Opens in new window) The radiographer should consider him or herself as a resource for the public and should be able to dispel any myths or misconceptions about medical imaging in general. The energy of the electromagnetic spectrum ranges from 10-12 to 1010 eV. In general, it is the radiographer’s role to be familiar with the different types of radiation to which patients may be exposed and to be able to answer questions and educate patients. This property is explained in this chapter. Only photons whose energy exceeds a threshold value will cause emission of photoelectrons. 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